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Where It All Began: The Evolution of Franchising

TASA ID: 11532

There are references in American history to early business relationships which, while possibly not meeting the current FTC definition, were without a doubt, franchise/licensing relationships. These relationships existed in the selling of wares from town-to-town by peddlers, licenses granted for general stores at military outposts, and certain livestock sales and other goods in which exclusive territorial rights were granted to the "franchisees" by the holder of the rights. Unfortunately, while the relationships are mentioned in the literature, the names of these early franchise founders and the structure of the business arrangement are not. 

Throughout its long history, there have been four constants that have fueled the growth of franchising, the desire to expand, the lack of expansion capital, the need to overcome distance, and managing people from a distant location.

The use of franchising can be traced to the expansion of the church and as an early method of central government control, probably as far back as the Middle Ages. Some have written that it may indeed date back as far as the Roman Empire or earlier and given the necessity of large territorial controls, coupled with the lack of modern transportation and communication at the time, there is reasonable basis for this assumption.


Category: Manufacturing

Wire Bonding

TASA ID: 4595

The dominant process for interconnecting semiconductor chips to the outside world is an ultrasonic welding process called wire bonding. More than 90% of the chip interconnections produced annually (more than 15 trillion wires) are produced with this process. Welding is a process where an intermetallic alloy is formed from the materials to be joined. Generally, intermetallic alloys are stronger and also more brittle than their constituents.  Welding is superior to other joining methods, such as soldering which require that a low melting temperature material melt and solidify within the joint. Low melting temperature materials, such as solders have significantly lower strength and are more subject to creep and fatigue failures than intermetallics.
Category: Manufacturing

New Trends in Wire Bond Packaging

TASA ID: 4595

As new high-speed products with ever-increasing capabilities are developed and introduced into the market, new advanced IC packaging designs and methods also must be developed to meet these new products’ requirements. New advanced packages are being designed to maximize I/O numbers, minimize wire bond loop length, and provide System-In-Package (SiP) performance. Stacked die packages, providing (SiP) performance, are already the mainstream of cellular phone manufacturing. Wire bonded Lead-On-Chip (LOC, FBGA) packages are the largest production volume portion of the DDR I memory market, and will be the dominant package type through the DDR II generation1
Category: Manufacturing

Very Fine Pitch Wire Bonding: Re-Examining Wire, Bonding Tool and Wire Bonder Interrelationships for Optimum Process Capability

TASA ID: 4595

Through continuous improvements, wire bonding remains the dominant interconnection method. The demand to reduce die size and increase functionality (conserving valuable silicon real estate and increasing the number of interconnects) continues. This has accelerated a decrease in the pitch and size of interconnects. Today’s leading edge production devices are gold ball bonded with 60 mm (bond pad) pitch and wedge bonded with 50 mm pitch. In the near future, gold ball bonding will approach 40 mm pitch and wedge bonding will approach 30 mm. As the pitch and size of the interconnections (bond pads) have decreased, the interrelationship of the various process inputs on each other has increased.
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