Menu
0

800-523-2319experts@tasanet.com

Articles

The Less Lethal Option for American Policing: Exploring Less Lethal Use of Force

Whitepaper

TASA ID: 3454

The Less Lethal Option for American Policing

Exploring Less Lethal Use of Force

ABSTRACT

One of the most controversial policies regularly questioned in the public domain is police use of force.  Through the news media, we are regularly apprised of situations in which police are alleged to have used excessive force during the apprehension of a suspect or an incident in which a suspect was killed as a result of police action.  This essay is an attempt to enlighten the reader on various issues regarding police use of force and some of the choices police officers may face in which there is no desirable outcome but the use of force to preserve life.

INTRODUCTION

It is generally agreed that the "professional era" of policing began in the late 1960's with the passing of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act in 1968.  The act legislated that federal funds and resources would be provided to local agencies to enhance their training and equipment (Gaines & Kappeler, 2008, p. 85).  This coincided with the height of the civil rights movement, as well as numerous instances of civil unrest that occurred in the United States from Watts to Washington.

Before 1970, an established policy on the use of force by police officers to effect an arrest was simply nonexistent.  Generally, a patrol officer only had four options when it came down to the use of force.  He had his voice, hands, night stick (baton), and revolver.  Prior to the advent of Mace, there was no generally issued, less lethal option other than blunt force trauma delivered by striking with a wooden baton (Wright, 2010).  The Baltimore City Police Department was considered one of the leading law enforcement agencies in the nation at this time, and the guidance they received regarding the use of force was simply "do what you have to do" to survive an attack or make the arrest (Wright, 2010).    However, by 1974, an actual use of force policy had been put into place that gave specific guidance on the application of force to bring a suspect into compliance with police officer commands (Goode, 2010).  Even then, academy instructors emphasized the ability to write "thorough" reports as the best defense against any allegations of excessive force (Goode, 2010). 

Along with the development of use of force policy in the mid-1970's, two additional tools had been added to the police officer's road gear.  These two additional items would help in establishing better police officer safety and help to curtail the need to use force.  The first item was chemical irritant, which was popularly known as Mace.  This allowed an officer who was alone to stand off and project an irritant that would help immobilize an attacker when deadly force was not necessary.  The second item was the police radio.  This piece of issue has become the most important thing a patrol officer can carry in his road gear.  With the radio, a police officer can call for additional police officers or medical help.  Before the handheld police radio, those agencies that had two-way radio capabilities lost communications as soon as the officer left his vehicle.

There is now a generally recognized use of force continuum in United States policing.  The details of policy may vary between agencies; however, most would agree that there are seven steps in the application of force.  These steps may generally be agreed upon as  1) verbal persuasion, 2) unarmed self-defense or hands-on, 3) chemical irritant and/or electro-muscular inhibitor, 4) baton, 5) police dog 6) presentation of deadly force, 7) deadly force.  With each of these applications of force, there are established criteria that must be met before the officer escalates to the next step, and therein lies the purpose of the use of force continuum.

AN OFFICER'S FIRST BEST TOOL

Often the most effective tool a police officer has is his/her voice and ability to confidently give commands to control a situation.  In many instances, a commanding, authoritative voice command is all that is required to bring a suspect into compliance.  In many cases, the officer does not even need to raise his or her voice.  A key component to voice commands, as most street officers may tell you, is body language.  Projecting an authoritative posture and a dominant presence within the situation will often deter suspects from forcing escalation, regardless of that force which has already been presented.  Voice commands may and should be utilized continuously as officers escalate through the use of force continuum. 

Voice commands will serve two primary purposes.  First, they will establish the officer's authority with a "take charge" attitude.  Experiencing the image and presence of a uniformed officer, those less familiar with the criminal justice system will be quick to comply, while those who have had more experience through previous arrests and incarceration may be more likely to resist.  Second, verbal commands will tell the suspect exactly what the police officer wants the suspect to do.  When suspects understand exactly what is expected of them, confusion is eliminated and resistance is diminished.   

As circumstances require an escalation of force, authoritative voice commands will serve as a warning both to the suspect and bystanders that the officer is attempting to use as little force as possible to bring the suspect into compliance.  Should deadly force become necessary, articulate and intelligible verbal commands that are heard by third parties will be of vital importance when an investigation is completed post-incident.

Aside from utilizing verbal commands for compliance, appropriately applied interpersonal communication skills can go a long way in diffusing volatile situations before force or arrest is necessary.  Police officers often become master negotiators through their day-to-day duties whether dealing with motorists or felons.  The ability to use voice commands and verbal communication skills is of vital importance for successful police officers.

 A TOTALITY OF CIRCUMSTANCES

As the use of force escalates in a given situation, police officers begin to assume more personal responsibility for the actions they take.  Policymakers often establish the use of force continuum based on a rigid step-by-step process.  They will generally lack the understanding or situational awareness that the police officer on duty finds necessary.

Many officers find themselves at odds with the criminal justice system they were hired and trained to support.  It is often difficult for someone who has never encountered a life threatening situation to understand the psychology of such an event, let alone understand the decision making process that takes place in a life or death situation  (Pinizzotto, Davis, Bohrer, & Cheney, 2009).  We are a society indoctrinated to police use of force primarily through movies and television.  When prosecutors and civilians attempt to judge these situations, they have many misconceptions.  Some will believe that no weapon in the hand of a suspect means that the suspect is not dangerous.  Generally they will not understand that if a suspect is able to disable an armed police officer, then the suspect can acquire the officer's firearm (Pinizzotto, Davis, Bohrer, & Cheney, 2009, p. 19).  This situation is simply unacceptable.  Edged weapons are especially dangerous; however, most agency policies will agree to the "21-foot rule" in which deadly force may used when the encounter with a knife-wielding suspect is within twenty-one feet. 

In the majority of these situations, police officers are often reacting to the situation with which they are presented.  This already places them at a disadvantage.  The myth that officers are able to draw their weapons and defend themselves in the blink of an eye is difficult to overcome.  Many also believe that only one or two bullets are required when deadly force is warranted and utilized.  Police academies routinely train their officers to continue shooting until there is no longer a threat.  The general public does not understand that it takes precisely placed rounds to quickly or instantaneously incapacitate a suspect.  In the few seconds it takes for the human body to react to temporary and permanent wound cavitation, the suspect may still be capable of harming others.  What one study and many police reports have shown is that in many cases, though multiple rounds were fired, very few of them hit their intended targets (Pinizzotto, Davis, Bohrer, & Cheney, 2009, p. 18).  During a stand-up life and death fight, the officer will not know if he is making effective hits on the threat until that threat actually falls and is no longer advancing. 

In other instances, it is necessary for officers to rely upon limited information when making a deadly force decision.  Often times the totality of circumstances is weighed in a split second in which an officer decides to use deadly force.  One such case occurred in 2001 when officers pursued a fleeing suspect, first by vehicle, then on foot.  During the foot pursuit, the suspect turned and confronted the officer closest to him shouting, "I got a gun."  As the pursuit continued, a K-9 was released and brought the suspect to the ground.  As officers approached, the suspect reached for his waistband, again claiming to have a gun, at which time a pursuing officer began firing on the suspect.  As other officers arrived in the following seconds, they were under the impression that a fellow officer was under fire.  They drew their weapons and also began firing  (Anonymous, 2009). 

In subsequent state and federal civil suits filed by the family of the deceased suspect, the courts found the officers acted reasonably, given the totality of the circumstances.   

"Several studies have demonstrated that the majority of officers had many more opportunities to use justifiable deadly force than actually did" (Pinizzotto, Davis, Bohrer, & Cheney, 2009, p. 19).

 

POLICING WITH MAN'S BEST FRIEND

The training and utilization of dogs in policing has a long and established history.  As an integral part of use of force policy, K-9's allow police officers the ability to pursue and corner potentially dangerous suspects without endangering themselves.  It also permits officers to subdue suspects without resorting to deadly force in life threatening situations.  The mere presence of a K-9 offers officers an extra intimidation factor, often times without ever needing to take the dog off lead.  The author has had varying experience with the utilization of K-9.  When dealing with a barricaded suspect in a tactical environment, entry teams are authorized the use of deadly force if the situation warrants.    In these situations, suspects, though armed, may be isolated or neutralized by using K-9 as an entry team member.  When properly trained, dogs can move more stealthily than a team of armed officers and locate the suspect within a structure, allowing the officers to bypass areas, using the dog to locate the suspect and move in for the arrest, using surprise.  This gives entry teams a decided advantage and may reduce the likelihood of deadly force when the suspect is confronted.

Patrol officers as well benefit from the use of K-9 units.  During a burglary situation, a K-9 unit responded and was able to gain entry into the structure with his dog through a window, and after allowing other officers in through the door, confronted the suspect.  The suspect was unresponsive to verbal commands and had his hands in his pockets.  The officer was unable to determine if the suspect was armed or not, so after warning the suspect repeatedly, he released the dog.  The dog subdued the suspect and officers effected the arrest without further injury. 

The suspect filed a civil suit  (Kim v. City of Corona) alleging excessive use of force.  The court found that excessive force was not used. Though the suspect was passive, he still presented a threat because his hands were in his pockets, and he was unresponsive to verbal commands (Anonymous, Excessive Force-K-9 Officer Sics Dog on Burglary Suspect, 2002).  As the situation evolved, the officer continued to use verbal commands. The posture of the suspect warranted the presentation of deadly force according to the accepted continuum, and serious injury was avoided by utilizing a K-9.

Similarly, the Tenth Circuit Court has found that using K-9 to chase down and hold fleeing suspects is not excessive force (Crime Control Digest, 2005).  A retired Maryland State Police K-9 Officer indicated that during his time on the force, he and his K-9 partner deterred and de-escalated numerous situations where the use of deadly force would have been justified, by using the dog to mitigate the situation without serious injury or death (Stotlemeyer, 2010).

 NEW TECHNOLOGY TAKES THE STAGE

Just as the advent of chemical irritant gave police officers another option before resorting to deadly force, so has the recent emergence of new technologies such as conducted energy devices (commonly known as Tasers), which utilize electric current to interrupt electro-muscular functions and immobilize suspects.  While there have been several high profile cases where suspects have died after being Tased, it has been found that those instances were the result of underlying and unknown health conditions of the suspects.  Tasers have the potential to be the most effective, less lethal tool available to police officers.  With the exception of a few cases, there are no lasting effects and no need to decontaminate suspects as with chemical irritant, and the effects subside as soon as the Taser is deactivated (Leitch, 2008). 

It is just as important for effective policy in the use of Tasers to be established as with any other device a police officer may utilize in the course of performing his/her duties.  A recent case found that an officer did use excessive force when he deployed his Taser to subdue a subject in California.  In Bryan v. McPherson, it was found that the suspect presented no immediate threat because he was known to be unarmed, though noncompliant, and was at a distance of 20 feet.  Bryan v. MacPherson, 608 F.3d 614, 618 (9th Cir.2010) (Anonymous, Court Disapproves of Officer's Use of Taser on Unarmed Suspect, 2010). 

By contrast, the 11th Circuit Court found that an officer who had called for back-up did not use excessive force because his right to make an arrest "carried with it the right to use some degree of physical coercion or threat" (Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386, 396, 109 S.Ct. 1865, 104 L.Ed.2d 443 (1989) (Anonymous, Officer Calls for Back Up, but Continues to Taser Suspect Before Other Officer Arrives, 2008).

CONCLUSION

Modern police departments now possess or have the ability to possess a variety of less lethal options to effect arrests in threatening situations without resorting to deadly force.  It is of vital importance for each of those agencies to establish clear and concise Use of Force policies that permit the use of acceptable, proportional, and effective force. The loss of life in any law enforcement situation is regretful and tragic and does not serve to improve community relations when officers need to resort to deadly force, even when it is justified.  By giving officers options and effective policies, administrations will facilitate better community relations while keeping officers safer and more effective as representatives who are depended upon to keep our communities safe.

 

Bibliography

Anonymous. (2010 February). Court Disapproves of Officer's Use of Taser on Unarmed Suspect. Law Enforcement Employment Bulletin , 27 (2), p. 3.

Anonymous. (2002). Excessive Force-K-9 Officer Sics Dog on Burglary Suspect. Police Department Disciplinary Bulletin , 10 (8), 5-6.

Anonymous. (2009). Misconduct: Family Sues Officers After Son is Shot While Fleeing Police. Police Department Disciplinary Bulletin, 17 (7), 7-8.

Anonymous. (2008 November). Officer Calls for Back Up, but Continues to Taser Suspect Before Other Officer Arrives. Arrest Law Bulletin , 32 (11), p. 4.

Crime Control Digest. (2005). Use Of Dog After Chase Is Not Excessive Force. Crime Control Digest , 39 (11), 4-5.

Gaines, L. K., & Kappeler, V. e. (2008). Policing in America (6th Edition ed.). Newark, New Jersey, USA: Mattthew Bender & Company.

Goode, P. (2010 15-March). Sergeant (Ret.), Baltimore City Police Department, Baltimore, MD. (S. P. Leitch, Interviewer).

Leitch, S. P. (2008 4-March). Taser Certification.

Meyers, S. A. (1996). A Guide To Police Sniping (2nd Edition, 2001 ed.). Gaithersburg, MD, USA: Operational Tactics International.

Pinizzotto, A. J., Davis, E. F., Bohrer, M., & Cheney, R. (2009). Law Enforcement Perspective on the Use of Force: Hands-On Experiential Training for Prosecuting Attorneys. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 78 (4), 16-21.

Stotlemeyer, R. (2010 13-March). Sergeant-K-9 (Ret.), Maryland State Police. (S. P. Leitch, Interviewer)

Wright, J. (2010 14-March). Lieutenant (Ret.), Baltimore City Police Department, Baltimore, MD. (S. P. Letch, Interviewer)

This article discusses issues of general interest and does not give any specific legal or business advice pertaining to any specific circumstances.  Before acting upon any of its information, you should obtain appropriate advice from a lawyer or other qualified professional.  

 This article may not be duplicated, altered, distributed, saved, incorporated into another document or website, or otherwise modified without the permission of TASA.

Bookmark and Share
Previous How to Get Evidence Admitted or Re-admitted by Use of Rule 703: The Advantages of a Life Expectancy Using Life Insurance Underwriting and Life Settlement Methods in the Legal Setting
Next The Ins and Outs of Vehicular Accident Reconstruction, From the Experts Point of View
Print
Tasa ID3454

Name:
Email:
Subject:
Message:
x

Let Us Find Your Expert 

Note: This form is to be completed by legal and insurance professionals ONLY. If you are a party in a case that requires an expert witness, please have your attorney contact TASA at 800-523-2319.

Submit

Search Experts

TASA provides a variety of quality, independent experts who meet your case criteria. Search our extensive list of experts now.

Search Experts

Testimonials

  • I think it's always good to have access to experts when [TASA] make[s] the process so easy."

    Scott McIntosh, Lewis McIntosh & Teare, Royersford, PA

  • As a busy practitioner, managing a sizeable caseload, I can use all of the help available to me. If I can outsource a task, particularly one as important as securing a qualified expert, I will jump at the opportunity. I use TASA in nearly every case where I need to find an expert witness, be it an engineer, an architect, an economist, etc. They have thousands of qualified experts to refer in virtually any field. Best of all the process is extremely simple. When I need an expert I simply contact TASA, whose knowledgeable representatives ask you targeted questions about your case, your legal theories, and your goals, in order to find the right expert for your case. I usually receive CVs and calls from the potential expert within hours. If you find the originally selected person is not a good fit – for whatever reason – TASA will work with you to find the right person. I would happily recommend this service to any attorney."

    Patrick K. Gibson, Gibson & Perkins PC, Media, PA

  • Ms. Darlie I. McDonald RN was awesome on the witness stand, and we prevailed in our case to the tune of  [a] (highly unusual [amount] for a medical malpractice [case] in our area).  I'd highly recommend her."

    Shane Reed, Shane A. Reed Law Office, Jacksonville, OR

  • I appreciate your inquiries and offers of assistance as well as the consistently high-quality, well-organized, and erudite TASA webinars, which invariably have excellent presenters."

    Maurice S. Kane, Cummings McClorey Davis Acho and Associates PC, Riverside, CA

  • Steven Kursh was an outstanding technical expert on our ecommerce IP lawsuit. He completed a massive amount of work on extremely complicated material, in a very short period of time. His work product was first rate and I think he would have done a terrific job if the case proceeded to trial. He is very articulate and helped us. I only wish we had gotten him involved sooner in the litigation."

    Daniel J. Brown, Reiss Sheppe LLP, New York, NY

  • I thank you all for the response to my request for an expert witness...Both Mr. Scott and Mr. Bianchi appear to be well-qualified for this case, but we have hired another expert. As always, I was impressed by TASA's ability to produce exceptionally well-qualified candidates with great speed."

    John Thomas Dzialo, The Law Offices of John Thomas Dzialo, Santa Ana, CA

  • Thank you for your quick response and the names of the two proposed experts. The situation that gave rise to our search for these experts has resolved and we will not need to retain them. However, we will continue to keep TASA in mind as these needs arise from time to time as your breadth of coverage for experts of all types is unparalleled, in my experience."

    Bart W. Brizzee, County of San Bernadino, San Bernadino, CA

  • I have used TASA for the last five years for locating an expert for many personal injury cases. On each and every occasion, TASA was able to find me more than one qualified expert. With such a variety of experts, I was able to select one who met my client's needs in prosecuting these claims. I found the experts TASA referred not only qualified, but available on a moment's notice. Your fees are reasonable and fair, and I will continue to use TASA for the remainder of my career."

    Robert Oushalem, Esq., The Law Office of Robert Oushalem, San Jose, CA

  • I recently used TASA for the first time to locate an expert to testify in a case requiring rather unusual expertise and where there were no applicable regulations or standards for guidance. TASA referred an expert in California who was everything a lawyer looks for in a forensic expert. He was promptly available for consultation, efficiently prepared for deposition and trial and very persuasive and credible with the jury. TASA's administrative services and assistance in locating this expert were excellent, and we would certainly use both the expert and TASA in the future."

    Theodore Phillips, Miller Hauser Law Group, LLP, Placerville, CA

  • TASA has always given me first-class service, but in a recent matter, TASA found the 'needle-in-the-haystack' expert witness we feared didn't exist. We needed an expert for a very narrow and limited issue in a very narrow and limited industry. Because TASA has an extensive expert witness database, it was able to give us a referral almost on the spot. It's why I always turn to TASA first."

    Kathleen A. Herdell, Law Offices of Kathleen A. Herdell, St. Helena, CA

  • There are numerous companies that provide litigation experts. However, I always choose the TASA Group because of their quick response in finding a qualified expert for my particular case. I have extreme confidence in the TASA Group and will continue to use their services in the future."

    Katie A. Killion, Esq., Chiurazzi & Mengine, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA

  • I spent hours trying to locate an expert in a very technical case involving a defect in a medical device. I could have saved a lot of time by calling TASA first. Within hours, I was supplied with the name of an engineer who had more than 30 years of job training, education and expertise in the precise area involving the device. Bravo TASA!"

    Timothy W. Peach, Partner, Peach & Weathers, San Bernardino, CA

  • We were involved in a case pending for more than five years with seven parties from three states. Three mediations failed before we looked to TASA for an expert. TASA referred an expert who clearly understood the complexity of the project and could effectively support his opinion. If it weren't for his expert advice and deposition testimony, the case would not have settled. Interestingly, the case settled within 90 days from the date this expert began."

    Renee Colbert, Esq., Corporate Counsel, W.G. Tomko, Inc., Finleyville, PA

  • Using TASA to find experts for defending our client in a negligent homicide case ended up being one of the most important decisions we made in trial preparation. The experts they suggested were exactly what we needed for the case. I truly did not expect to find experts that would be such a perfect fit for the nature of case. TASA provided us with highly qualified experts in somewhat narrow fields of expertise. A large percentage of our victory is due to the experts recommended by TASA."

    Marta Farmer, Esq., Carl S. White Law Office, Haver, MT

  • I have used TASA's services since the 1980's and have never been disappointed. TASA is indispensable for locating that hard-to-find expert. TASA representatives have always been courteous and pleasant, with the attitude that they cannot do enough to help. I expect to continue using TASA throughout my career."

    Brad W. Greenberg, Esq., Smyth Law Offices, P.C., Brockton, MA

  • I needed to retain a multitude of scientists from a variety of disciplines for a complex litigation. Initially, I went through a series of interviews with an extremely knowledgeable and professional team of TASA advisors. They were able to find highly qualified experts in the specific fields, all of whom turned out to be superior in qualification and area of expertise to my adversary’s experts. I am a TASA believer!"

    Nooshin Namazi, Partner, Nicoletti Hornig & Sweeney, New York, NY

  • TASA always comes through in the difficult IP cases. Their representatives work with you to refine the search criteria and quickly send you a list of very qualified experts."

    Timothy L. Boller, Principal, Seed Intellectual Property Law Group, PLLC, Seattle, WA

  • Special thanks to our TASA referral advisor for her quick response to our initial request—we were extremely happy with how fast TASA was able to assist us! Your group does excellent work, and it is always my first stop when looking for an expert."

    Susanne K. Sullivan, Senior Attorney, Southwest Airlines Corporation, Dallas, TX

  • When we needed an expert in a patent infringement lawsuit, we turned to TASA. We were looking for a witness qualified in two unrelated technical areas, and TASA worked with us to identify and refine our requirements. TASA performed well, promptly providing us with several excellent candidates to consider, one of whom we retained."

    Joseph T. Miotke, Partner, IP Practice Group, Michael Best & Friedrich LLP, Milwaukee, WI

  • Our team had a very positive experience with TASA. The Expert was professional, efficient, and certainly an expert in his field. His work and testimony contributed to a winning decision for our client! We will recommend the Expert and TASA whenever appropriate."

    Stephanie Sprague, Esq., CT

  • (The Expert) WAS A PERFECT FIT for my case: qualified, competent, easy to work with, attentive to detail, knowledgeable, smart, communicative, enthusiastic, resourceful—have I left anything out? I highly recommend TASA and would be happy to share my experience with anyone else. Thank you!"

    Michael Porrazzo, Esq., The Porrazzo Law Firm, Mission Viejo, CA

  • The expert was very thorough. TASA was quick to respond with an answer to my request. I have used TASA in the past under various other law firms and have been pleased. TASA continues to live up to expectations and then some."

    Anne Desormier-Cartwright, Esq., Jupiter, FL

  • Your organization found us an appropriate expert witness in less than one day. This was excellent service. The expert you found was excellent and a pleasure to work with."

    William A. Ehrlich, Esq., Allentown, PA

  • (The Expert)…accomplished exactly what we wanted. TASA was very prompt and efficient in locating him. All fees were reasonable."

    J. Michael Lehman, Esq., Bruce, Bruce, & Lehman, Wichita, KS

  • We needed an Internet expert right away to meet a deadline. One phone call to TASA, and in less than a day, TASA called back with a list of 8-10 experts who were exactly what I needed. The TASA expert I chose knew the business and mechanics of the Internet so well—he was a PhD and professor who had written a book on the subject—that he put the fear of truth in the defendant that caused him to settle. When I get the kind of service that I did from TASA, I stick with it and use it again and again."

    Philip Green, Attorney at Law, Green and Green, San Rafael and San Francisco, CA

  • Excellent—in a word. I just do not have the time to hunt for experts. (The Expert) was fantastic. Thank you for providing such a quality service."

    Francesca Carinci, Esq., Steubenville, OH

  • TASA stands for Tops At Serving Attorneys. It’s always rewarding working with TASA."

    Marshall A. Bernstein, Esq., Philadelphia, PA.

  • That was, however, one of the best and most interesting webinars I've seen in the last few years.  Thank you for hosting it and introducing me to such a knowledgeable and caring person." - Referencing the Medicolegal Consequences of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Civilian and Military Populations webinar. 

    Lori Bauer Apodaca, The Law Office of Lori Bauer Apodaca, Los Lunas, NM 

  • I needed a dental malpractice expert to assist me in a complex negligence claim. The very able staff at TASA had no difficulty identifying a knowledgeable professional who rendered a reasonable opinion in support of the case, which aided our client in receiving a fair amount of compensation. I am grateful to TASA for its invaluable assistance!"

    John Hermina, Hermina Law Group, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland & Washington, DC

  • For many years I have relied upon TASAmed to provide excellent medical malpractice experts. As a sole practitioner, I find it reassuring to know that a seasoned expert is just a call away. Usually, TASAmed has found just the right expert in a day or two. The support and guidance I receive from TASAmed is a vital part of my law practice, and I have come to expect both great service and high rewards from my TASA cases."

    Thomas J. Massey, The Thomas J. Massey Law Firm, Fallbrook, CA

  • The caliber of physicians that TASAmed has referred to us is superb. Prior referral groups used the same experts over and over again. With TASAmed I have access to experts all over the United States. I’m not limited to the same experts. The TASAmed staff is easy to work with and very professional, with an established track record. When I call for a medical expert, I’m called back the same day, and I often have an idea of what expert will be contacted before my first call is completed."

    Kari Alexander, Certified Legal Nurse Consultant, Texas

  • We hadn’t been able to find the medical expert we needed, and, frankly, I didn’t think we’d find one in that field. TASAmed was able to find us an expert with the exact expertise and medical experience we needed. Your referral advisor was very helpful and found our expert in one day."

    Kurt Osenbaugh, Partner, Alston & Bird, Los Angeles, CA

  • TASAmed’s service was prompt and efficient in connecting us with the right person. The expert was so cooperative and helpful. With how challenging it is to find a narrow area of medical expertise, it’s extra helpful to have your TASAmed pool to plug into instantaneously."

    Greg Roosevelt, Esq., Law Office of Greg Roosevelt, Edwardsville, IL

  • TASAmed has connected me to credible experts in four medical cases just this year. TASAmed and the referred experts respond quickly, the fees are reasonable, and the referrals are well tuned to the fields I request. Since the experts are already associated with TASAmed, they are comfortable having substantial conversations about the case, both before and after record review."

    Martin A. Cannon, Esq., Cannon Law Offices, Crescent, IA

  • I have used TASAmed a number of times and have always been happy with your give-and-take timeliness. Once I requested a medical expert in a particular field, but, after speaking with your referral advisor, we concluded that an expert in another field would be more effective. That same day, I spoke to two experts the advisor gave me, and I retained one."

    Mark A. Lope, Esq., Lope and Honlihan, Butler, PA

  • Very close to the time of trial, the TASAmed advisor quickly referred me to several experienced ER trauma physicians to review medical records and prepare me for cross-examination. After selecting my expert, I over-nighted records for review, and the doctor found valuable information for my client's defense. Thank you, TASAmed, for this timely, specific, valuable referral."

    Charles Morgan, Esq., Law Office of Charles L. Morgan, Jr., Charlotte, NC